Saturday, December 31, 2011

New species discovered in 2011

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 France license
Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis)

Every year scientists describe thousands of species for the first time. 2011 was an amazing year.  Here is a look at some of the significant new species discoveries for the year.   A Xenophyophore is a one celled-organism the size of a mango, very big of this kind of thing!  Some other species discovered include a “SpongeBob” mushroom in Borneo, a long-tongued bee, new mice in the Philippines, seabirds, several bats, a new monkey species and even a dolphin off the coast of Australia! Imagine discovering a species the size of a dolphin- what more do we not know!    

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license
“SpongeBob”mushroom in Borneo
(Spongiforma squarepantsii)


From NOAA's Ocean Explorer (Public Domain image)
A Xenophyophore- A one celled-organism the size of a mango!

Friday, December 30, 2011

Invitation for project submission for the Third International Youth Symposium for Biodiversity- India

Image with the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license

In October 2012, the Third International Youth Symposium for Biodiversity will be held in Auroville, Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of the symposium is to welcome students from around the world, and to celebrate the local biodiversity work they are doing in their home countries. The Auroville symposium will take place prior to the 11th Conference on Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity, which will be held in Hyderabad, India from October 8 – 19, 2012.

The Auroville Biodiversity Youth Symposium is open to students from around the world. In order to participate in this symposium, students are required to carry out a biodiversity study project in their respective home countries. In line with the key issues that will be discussed at the Conference in Hyderabad, student biodiversity proposals can be on any of the following themes:

1. Local biodiversity – Terrestrial or Aquatic
2. Biodiversity and Livelihoods
3. Role of cultural practices and tradition on biodiversity
4. Effect of non-indigenous species on local biodiversity
5. Cycle of cause and effect between human activity and biodiversity
6. Urban biodiversity

All biodiversity study projects should ideally incorporate the following elements:
1. Field work and/or practical data collection – please visit the website:
http://www.sprise.com/shs/habitatnet.aspx?id=5386 for help

2. Scientific/theoretical approach
3. Creativity and personal expression

Guidelines for participation
The overall guidelines for participation/submission of projects for the Auroville Biodiversity Youth Symposium are:
u Eligibility: students from Grades 8 to 12 (ages 14-19)
u The proposal should include:
u A 150-250 word abstract that includes information regarding the project and how it relates to conserving “Global Biodiversity”.
u How the project will be implemented (techniques to be used)
u General time line over 6 months
u The location of the project
u The email address of the project
u Proposals must include: names of students and ages, teachers/ leaders, schools or group name, and contact information (phone & email or postal address).
u The deadline for the submission of proposals is February 20th, 2012.

General Information:
1) Submissions by conventional mail or email are to be sent to:
Chali Grinnel, Symposium for Biodiversity Coordinator

Future School
Auroville 605101
Tamil Nadu
India
EMAIL: futureschool@auroville.org.in
2) All proposals will be reviewed by a panel of experts. Students will be notified of their acceptance to the symposium by March 10, 2012.

3) Information regarding any available funding to participate as well as logistics will be provided to all ACCEPTED proposals.

4). For QUESTIONS contact any of the coordinators at their emails below:

Chali Grinnel- chali@auroville.org.in

Once the applications have been processed, and the delegates determined for the symposium, team leaders will be asked to process their payments.

Thursday, December 29, 2011

MY FAVOURITE NATURE PHOTOS OF 2011

Here are my favourite images of 2011:

Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) NWT

Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes) Ottawa, Ontario

STRANGE FRIENDS! Mouse and Treefrog- Ottawa, Ontario

Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Silver-spotted Skipper (Epargyreus clarus) Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Meandering River (NWT)

Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Dandelion seedhead- Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Dead man's fingers (Xylaria polymorpha) Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) Macoun Marsh- Ottawa, Canada

Images by Michael Leveille
Biodiversitymatters.org

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

SMALLEST FROG YET DISCOVERED THE SIZE OF A TIC TAC!

Creative commons Attribution 3:0 License 
Paedophryne dekot—dekot means "very small" in the local Daga language—is about 8.5 to 9 millimeters long. It was found in a Papua New Guinea forest! 

Saturday, December 24, 2011

Friday, December 23, 2011

DRY SPELL IRKS FARMERS- PAKISTAN

Most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa areas have not received rainfall putting wheat growers into misery. For the first time after 2002, the area is facing dry spell at this time of the year.  If this persists for a couple of weeks, the farmers will have to incur huge financial loses. In 2010, wheat was cultivated on around 370,000 hectares in the arid area of the province 
17 December
http://www.dawn.com/2011/12/17/dry-spell-worries-wheat-growers.html

PAYMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES- BHUTAN

In Bhutan’s first ever payment for environmental service (PES) scheme, a three-year contract has been signed between the Municipal Corporation Mongar town and the Yakpugang Community Forest Management Group. The community will preserve drinking water source and in return will get paid Nu 52,000 a year.
19 December
http://www.businessbhutan.bt/?p=8631

BLACK-NECKED CRANE- BHUTAN

A black-necked crane was spotted in Kangpara for the first time. No sighting has been recorded in the area before.
15 December

RHINO KILLED AND HORN SEIZED- INDIA

A de-horned rhino carcass was found in Kaziranga National Park. It was shot dead two to three days ago according to park officials. In a separate incident, forest guards of have seized a rhino horn from a group of smugglers.
15, 20 December
bit.ly/rB9I9R, bit.ly/v0AauH

UP FOR GRABS- INDIA

More than 900 ha of forests and wetland areas have been forcefully occupied by the land mafia in Guwahati and they are being sold to the corporate giants. For the past two years, Land grabbing has been going on unabatedly by the land mafias. Similarly, in Jammu construction business is booming up at the expense of agriculture land.
15, 17 December     
bit.ly/vFWx3B, bit.ly/tuCMX9

ILLEGAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION- NEPAL

In Kathmandu valley, around 700 million litres of ground water is extracted daily illegally. There are more than 500 drinking water supply companies involved in groundwater extraction and their activities are left unchecked by the authorities.
21 December
The Kathmandu Post

OF TUSKERS- NEPAL

Government decision to allow the entry of private tuskers in Chitwan National Park has been withheld, a day before they were all set to move into the park, after the disagreement shown by the political parties. Meanwhile, an electric fence has been constructed in Shuklaphanta wildlife reserve in west Nepal to keep reserve elephants at bay from wild tuskers attack.
18, 20 December
Republica, The Himalayan Times

FIRST RENEWABLE ENERGY VILLAGE- NEPAL

Mini wind-solar hybrid power system has been installed in Dhaubadi village of Nawalparasi District, west Nepal.  With this, the village has been dubbed as the Asia's first 'renewable energy village'. The installed system generates 43.6 KWh per day and lights up 46 households.
16, 17 December
bit.ly/sXAMud
bit.ly/uD798R

NO MIGRATORY BIRDS THIS WINTER- NEPAL

Winter is already here but there is no sign of migratory birds in Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve unlike previous years. Earlier, their arrival would start by late September. A large chunk of bird habitat was buried under heaps of sand after the flooding Koshi River breached its banks, earlier this year.
15 December
The Rising Nepal

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Durrell celebrates 25 years conserving the ploughshare tortoise in Madagascar

As 2011 comes to a close Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is celebrating 25 successful years of saving species from extinction in Madagascar with the reintroduction into the wild of 20 captive-bred ploughshare tortoises, or angonoka, the world’s most threatened tortoise and the first species Durrell worked with in Madagascar.

Recently 20 tortoises were moved from the breeding centre at Ankarafantsika National Park to a secure site within their natural habitat in preparation for their release into the wild. The animals are marked and fitted with microchips and radio transmitters for close monitoring.

The tortoises’ arrival in their native land coincided with the annual Festival Angonoky on 24th and 25th November in Soalala, a two-day festival celebrating the communities’ commitment to conserving the ploughshare tortoise.

Image by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Partnership forged between Japan Committee for the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Kanazawa, Japan, 20 December 2011– The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Japan Committee for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCNJ) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with a view to promoting greater awareness amongst civil society organisations in Japan and abroad and join forces for the successful implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Targets.

The MoU, which was signed in Kanazawa City, Japan, on 19 December 2011 at the margins of the official launch of the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, was also endorsed by Communication, Education and Public Awareness Japan (CEPA Japan) and the Japan Civil Network for the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity (JCN-UNDB).

The agreement highlights the crucial role civil society plays in implementing the Nagoya Biodiversity Compact, and contributes to the success of the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity and the Aichi Targets. It also stresses the importance of working together with international partners in order to raise awareness of civil society and to better support conservation and biodiversity action at the local level. It must be noted that the very idea of a United Nations Decade on Biodiversity was generated by the Japan civil society.

Through the MoU, the signatories—Mr. Masahito Yoshida, Chair of IUCNJ, Mr. Ahmed Djoghlaf, Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Mr. Masahiro Kawatei, Representative of CEPA Japan, and Mr. Susumu Takayama, Representative of JCN-UNDB—agreed to cooperate in several areas, including in the development and global dissemination of communication and outreach materials on biodiversity and in mobilizing the commitment of local government, private sector, youth, academia and civil society organizations through, inter alia, the Niju-maru campaign.

The Niju-maru is a campaign led by the Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement International, in close collaboration with CEPA Japan, which encourages commitment by Japan-based stakeholders to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. “Commitment of all sectors is required in order to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Targets by 2020. I believe that the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the CBD Secretariat and Japan Committee for IUCN today will mobilize the participation of all sectors through outreach programme including the Niju-maru project and CEPA,” said Masahito Yoshida.
 
Ahmed Djoghlaf said: “The Japan Civil Network played a key role in supporting the designation by the United Nations General Assembly of 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. By reiterating their commitment today and by coordinating their efforts, IUCNJ and its partners are demonstrating the sincere will of civil society to take action to reach the goals set by the international community.”

Monday, December 19, 2011

Invitation for project submission for the Third International Youth Symposium for Biodiversity

In October 2012, the Third International Youth Symposium for Biodiversity will be held in Auroville, Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of the symposium is to welcome students from around the world, and to celebrate the local biodiversity work they are doing in their home countries. The Auroville symposium will take place prior to the 11th Conference on Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity, which will be held in Hyderabad, India from October 8 – 19, 2012.

The Auroville Biodiversity Youth Symposium is open to students from around the world. In order to participate in this symposium, students are required to carry out a biodiversity study project in their respective home countries.  In line with the key issues that will be discussed at the Conference in Hyderabad, student biodiversity proposals can be on any of the following themes:

1.      Local biodiversity – Terrestrial or Aquatic
2.      Biodiversity and Livelihoods
3.      Role of cultural practices and tradition on biodiversity
4.      Effect of non-indigenous species on local biodiversity
5.      Cycle of cause and effect between human activity and biodiversity
6.      Urban biodiversity

All biodiversity study projects should ideally incorporate the following elements:
1. Field work and/or practical data collection – please visit the website: 
    http://www.sprise.com/shs/habitatnet.aspx?id=5386 for help

2. Scientific/theoretical approach
3. Creativity and personal expression

Guidelines for participation
The overall guidelines for participation/submission of projects for the Auroville Biodiversity Youth Symposium are:
u  Eligibility: students from Grades  8 to 12 (ages 14-19)
u  The proposal should include: 
u  A 150-250 word abstract that includes information regarding the project and how it relates to conserving “Global Biodiversity”. 
u  How the project will be implemented (techniques to be used)
u  General time line over 6 months
u  The location of the project
u  The email address of the project
u  Proposals must include: names of students and ages, teachers/ leaders, schools or group name, and contact information (phone & email or postal address).
u  The deadline for the submission of proposals is February 20th, 2012.

General Information:
1)      Submissions by conventional mail or email are to be sent to:

Chali Grinnel, Symposium for Biodiversity Coordinator
Future School
Auroville 605101
Tamil Nadu
India
EMAIL: futureschool@auroville.org.in

2) All proposals will be reviewed by a panel of experts. Students will be notified of their acceptance to the symposium by March 10, 2012.

3) Information regarding any available funding to participate as well as logistics will be provided to all ACCEPTED proposals. 

4). For QUESTIONS contact any of the coordinators at their emails below:

Chali Grinnel- chali@auroville.org.in
Erin Kenny- enkenny@hotmail.com

Once the applications have been processed, and the delegates determined for the symposium, team leaders will be asked to process their payments.

Friday, December 16, 2011

“Turn your back on Canada,” by 6 Canadian Youth in South Africa

On Nov. 28, international climate-change negotiations began in Durban, South Africa, as the 17th annual Conference of Parties (COP17) got underway. This is the third in a series of blog posts from Amara Possian, who is the co-ordinator of the Canadian Youth Delegation to this conference. Today, Amara shares a letter signed in support of the actions taken by Canadian youth while Environment Minister Peter Kent addressed the United Nations conference on Wednesday.
On Wednesday morning, six young Canadians stood up during Environment Minister Peter Kent’s plenary address to the United Nations climate negotiations. The six Canadian youth stood silently and turned their back on Kent for several minutes, wearing shirts that read “People before Polluters” and “Turn your back on Canada,” before being escorted out by UN security.

A message from Mr. Ahmed Djoghlaf, Executive Secretary of the CBD, on the occasion of the United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation

The global South comprises more than 70 per cent of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Developing countries face tremendous challenges in halting the loss of biodiversity and mitigating the risks of biodiversity losses. For the least developed countries, the landlocked developing countries, small island developing States and Africa in general, the requirements for capacity-development require not only North-South cooperation for sustainable development. South-South cooperation, as a complement to North-South cooperation, remains an important force for the successful preservation of biodiversity.

Hence, South-South cooperation is one of the key modalities for enhancing the implementation of this vital Convention at the service of the legitimate development needs of the developing countries Parties.

As developing and emerging countries consolidate their achievements in the implementation of the Convention, and as their capacity to assist other partners grows, the Convention needs South-South and triangular cooperation as cornerstones of its strategy to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. South-South cooperation should be encouraged, within the Convention, and in the broader context of scientific and technical cooperation, as defined by articles 16, 17 and 18 of the Convention. It can also be linked to biodiversity technology transfer and the discussions towards a Biodiversity Technology Initiative.

Last year in Nagoya, just prior to the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, a South-South Cooperation Forum on Biodiversity for Development was convened by the G-77 and China, adopting a Multi-Year Plan of Action for South-South Cooperation on Biodiversity for Development as a complement to the G-77 Development Platform for the South launched in June 2008 at the twelfth session of the Intergovernmental Follow-up and Coordination Committee on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire. Subsequently, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention adopted decision X/23, which encourages Parties and other Governments to further contribute to the development of the Plan and calls on regional organizations, United Nations and development agencies, non-governmental organizations and other donors to support the finalization of the Plan of Action for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh meeting, to be held in Hyderabad, India, in October next year.

In this sense, I also welcome the proactive support of the Government of the Republic of Korea, through its National Institute for Biological Resources (NIBR), hosting the Third Expert Meeting for South-South Cooperation on Biodiversity for Development from 18 to 20 May 2011 in Incheon City. The meeting’s output and recommendations will be considered at the next meeting of the Working Group on the Review of Implementation in May 2012 in Montreal, where Parties will also consider the Plan of Action proposed by the Group of 77 and China.

Since 2006, the Group of 77 and China have attached fundamental importance to cooperating with the Secretariat of the Convention in promoting economic and technical cooperation among developing countries through South-South initiatives. As Africa is poised to become the Chair of the Group of 77 for 2012, it is now up to Parties to the Convention to continue to work together to ensure that progress made to date in South-South cooperation can be advanced in the years to come in the arena of sustainable development. I look forward to an active support from Parties to the further development and eventual adoption of a Plan of Action on South-South Cooperation on Biodiversity for Development as a key component of the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. I also look forward to the organization of regular meetings of the South-South forum on biodiversity for development, in partnership with the Group of 77 and China, at the margins of future meetings of the Conference of the Parties to exchange experiences and best practices.

VILLAGES RUNNING DRY- BHUTAN

Villages in Mongar district are reeling under water crisis for past one year. The only water source is drying up and farmers are giving up farming. New water supply scheme in the village is a far cry as the village is not entitled for another scheme for the next 10 years.
12 December
http://www.kuenselonline.com/2011/?p=22826

WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT SEEKS HUNTERS HELP- INDIA

In Bandipora district of Kashmir, Department of wildlife has hired local hunters to ease human animal conflict. The department is ill equipped to capture animals and as a last resort they opted for hunters.
10 December

DEVELOPMENT AT ANY COST- NEPAL

Over a dozen community forest and several rhododendron forests have been obliterated while constructing a 28 km road in Terathum District, east Nepal. Similar incident has been reported from Kanchanpur District, west Nepal, where a 9 km track has been built in the community forest area by the users committee but with an intention of smuggling timber.

12, 14 December
Kantipur, The Rising Nepal

OF CEREALS AND MEDICINAL HERBS- NEPAL

Last fiscal year, cereals worth NRS 5.3 billion was imported to Nepal from India and other parts of the world whereas medicinal herbs worth NRS 3 billion was exported. Compared to previous year, the numbers have sharply increased in both the cases.

8, 11 December
Nagrik, Republica

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Recent sightings

Praying mantis eggs 


A nut chewed on by an agouti
Agouti chewing on nut or seed.

Mr. Panamá
 

UNESCO’s attention on Chitwan National Park



United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) in Paris has raised serious concern to recent governmental decision to allow the entry of privately-owned elephants inside the Chitwan National Park (CNP).

It is really great news for the conservationists that the UNESCO Chief from France has also sent a letter to the Permanent Delegate of Nepal to UNESCO, raising concerns about the impact of allowing the entry of more tuskers owned by private hotels in the park area. 




Friday, December 9, 2011

MILD WINTER FOR TIBET

According to the Tibet Regional Meteorological Bureau, Tibet is bracing for another mild winter this year, the 11th such season since 2001. From January 1 to November 15, the average temperature ranged from -0.7 degrees Celsius to 14.7 degrees, which is 0.5 degrees higher than normal years. Over the past 50 years, the annual average temperature in Tibet has increased by 0.32 degrees every decade. During the previous winter from December 2010 to February 2011, the average temperature in Tibet stood at - 12.1 to 5.4 degrees, which is  1.2 degrees higher than normal years.

December 05, 2011  

TIGRESS SHOT DEAD- INDIA

A tigress at Kaziranga National Park was shot 15 bullets from AK-47 rifles by Assam Police's personnel as it sneaked into a human settlement and attacked people.

6, 7 December
bit.ly/sgtPKr
bit.ly/sst7cr

PESTICIDES BEHIND FISH POISONING- INDIA

It has been revealed that a combination of at least six pesticides, used by tea farmers, have killed thousands of fish and other organisms on the Karala River in Jalpaiguri District. Water collected from the river showed higher level of endosulfan and methyl parathion contamination.

3 December

FISH INVENTORY- INDIA

Fish survey carried out in the four forest reserves of North Bengal after 70 years has revealed nearly 50 first sightings. Study found 67 species in Gorumara National Park and Chapramari wildlife sanctuaries; 88 species in Jaldapara; and 100 species in Buxa Tiger Reserve. Whilst the Survey conducted in 1937 recorded 130 fish species in this region.

1 December
bit.ly/sD94xy

WILDLIFE AND WATER SUPPLY- NEPAL

Solar powered machines have been installed to supply water to the 6 artificial lakes of Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Kanchanpur District, west Nepal. The machine has been installed to supply animals with drinking water as the lakes have dried out.

6 December
The Rising Nepal

RUNAWAY GLACIER- NEPAL

The study conducted in Everest area showed that Nepal's glacial areas have depleted by 21 percent over the past 30 years. There has been a significant loss of glacial mass between 2000 and 2005 along with a shrinking of glaciers in central and eastern Himalayas.

5 December
The Kathmandu Post, Republica Daily

NO TO HYBRID MAIZE- NEPAL

The pilot project of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Nepal’s Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and US agricultural corporation Monsanto to promote hybrid maize is facing public criticism. Locals fear that hybrid maize seed could replace indigenous seeds and make farmers dependent and pave the way for the introduction of genetically modified crops. Monsanto has been importing conventionally bred seeds into Nepal for the past 15 years, including 100 metric tons of hybrid seeds in 2010. For threatening human health and the environment, Monsanto has been declared the Worst Company of 2011 by NaturalSociety, leader of genetically modified crops and biopesticides.

30 November, 6 December
bit.ly/sSpwQZ
bit.ly/vMxAKG

Thursday, December 8, 2011

MESSAGE BY AHMED DJOGHLAF (Executive Secretary of the CBD) for International Mountain Day 2011

John Ruskin, the famous English art critic of the Victorian era, once said: “Mountains are the beginning and the end of all natural scenery.” For 22 per cent of the world’s population living in both mountain and lowland mountain ecosystems, mountains are the source of livelihoods. Against this background, and 2011 being the International Year of Forests, the theme of this year’s International Mountain Day— “Mountains and Forests”—is timely and significant.

Mountain forests capture and store rainfall, maintain water quality, regulate river flow, and reduce erosion and downstream sedimentation. They also provide many environmental services, including protection against natural hazards and landscapes for tourism and recreation, and absorption of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Healthy mountain forests are crucial to the ecological health of the world. However, globally, mountain forests are one of the world’s most threatened ecosystems.

Protecting these forests and making sure they are carefully managed is an important step towards sustainable mountain development. Mountain regions are amongst the most sensitive to climate change. Melting glaciers, the shifting of natural habitats, and the retreat and disappearance of species are stark reminders of the vulnerability of mountains ecosystems to rising temperature and changes in precipitation levels.

Achieving environmental and human sustainability in mountains means finding ways to manage mountain resources and systems so that they can provide critical ecosystem services, even in the face of climate change. Options for climate-change adaptation in mountain ecosystems include, inter alia, mountain watershed management, establishment of both horizontal and vertical connectivity migration corridors, rehabilitation of degraded forest ecosystems, avoiding deforestation, and reducing human pressure on biodiversity. The programme of work on mountain biological diversity under the Convention on Biological Diversity provides for such adaptation options. At its tenth meeting, of the Conference of Parties to the Convention, in decision X/30 on mountain biological diversity, called for measures to reduce deforestation and restore degraded mountain forest ecosystems to enhance the role of mountains in providing important ecosystem services.

There are win-win opportunities in this arena to not only protect mountain ecosystems and the biodiversity they harbour – but to use these more proactively and wisely to contribute significantly to meeting multiple human development challenges in the face of a rapidly changing world. Our actions in support of mountain ecosystems will be a contribution to the overall achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the building of a future of life in harmony with nature.

Let us celebrate the International Mountain Day 2011 in a befitting manner to raise awareness about the relevance of mountain forests and the role they play in climate-change adaptation measures and for achieving sustainable mountain development.